Quelles ont été les influences qui ont permis la rédaction de la constitution américaine ?
Publié le 01/05/2022
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The American constitution was inspired by many regimes and many people.
The founding fathers were influenced by the Roman and Greek political systems, the political philosophies of Locke and Montesquieu, and the ideas of the Iroquois peoples. First of all, the Founding Fathers were inspired by the ancient Greek and Roman peoples to use the idea of democracy, the idea of separation of powers and the principle of mandate.
Democracy is the fact of having the people vote to elect representatives or to put in place laws.
The ancient Greeks were already in a kind of democracy 5 centuries BC, about 22 centuries before it was established in England.
Furthermore, the purpose of the separation of powers is not to leave full powers to one person so that they are not abused.
Indeed, they are separated and given to different representatives of the state.
This principle also dates back to 500 BC and was later taken up by philosophers such as Locke in England and Montesquieu in France.
Finally, the Romans were also the originators of the principle of mandate which still governs the American constitution and the French constitution today.
The civil code also comes from the Romans. Secondly, Locke's political philosophy was also a great inspiration for the founding fathers.
Locke believed that the role of government should be limited and that it should only serve the interest of the people by protecting them. However, he believed that in order to avoid a state of nature (an anarchist society without any government, guided by the law of the strongest), we must give the state some of our rights, but if the state abuses them, the people may revolt.
John Locke is an important figure of the Enlightenment because, in
addition to being against absolutism, he is in favour of the separation of the state
and the church.
Locke was also the originator of the social contract and property rights.
He opposed Hobbes who thought that the state of nature was very dangerous and that our thoughts and knowledge came naturally from God and was totally in favour of absolutism.
Since Locke, the separation of powers into legislative, executive and judicial is traditionally considered by liberals as the best guarantee against abuse of power. Other philosophers also inspired the American constitution.
First, Montesquieu took up the idea of the separation of powers into three branches: the executive, the legislative and the judicial.
Secondly, Rousseau believed that everyone is born free.
He also believes that man is naturally born good and devoid of immorality.
Furthermore, he believed, like Locke, that the social contract is based on the mutual harmony of wills and the interests of individuals.
He therefore also believed in democracy. Finally, during the conquest of the East, the founding fathers were greatly inspired by the Indian peoples, and in particular the Iroquois, whom they decimated despite everything.
Indeed, their population was extremely well organised in several nations, all governed by the same constitution.
They applied democracy, which was taken as an example by the Americans when they created. »
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