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beginning of the cold war

Publié le 18/03/2024

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« Beginning of the Cold War Ideology- Communism vs.

capitalism USA- Democracy- elections to choose govt.

Individuals have rights protected by the constitution.

Anyone can be rich and powerful.

Laissez-faire economy- limited govt.

role- free trade within and between countries- The “American Dream” anyone can be rich and powerful through hard work. Soviet Union- One Party state- Communist Party- Limited individual rights.

Everyone is equaleverything is shared out by the government.

State Socialism- govt.

planned economy- set wages, prices, production targets- all money went to the govt.

– no individual prosperity. Impact of communist ideology in developing Cold War It promoted global revolution and a fundamental hostility to capitalist countries.

It can be argued that salami tactics was motivated by a desire to spread communism (aggressively expansionist) they were a way of forcing communist ideology onto countries.

Cominform was to coordinate wider communist movement.

Soviets encouraged left wing dissent in capitalist countries. Impact of capitalist ideology in developing Cold War -USA wanted to impose American values on the world as a way of attaining peace (capitalist econ, free trade and liberal trade).

Trying to impose this on EE was bound to cause tension.

America’s economy required a global market top avoid recession- MP & TD was to extend US dominated capitalist power and undermine communism.

Truman Doctrine was a military means of destroying communism (the reference in Truman’s speech to “free peoples” who were “subjugated” was a reference to antiCommunists: as shown during the Greek civil war.) Marshall Plan was based on the idea of tackling poverty in order to destroy the temptation to become communist.

The fact that the plan involved forcing economies to open themselves up to trade with the US shows that it involved protecting capitalist interests.

This compelled USSR to consolidate EE.

Political- poverty breed’s communism.

Couldnt take aid if communist- attempting to force USSR into open door policy Oct.

1917- comm govt.

US and British troops sent to fight against comm.

during Russian Civil War During WW2- Common enemy in Nazi Germany- Grand Alliance with Britain.

Once common enemy was defeated it was inevitable that hostilities would resume. US aggression Yalta to Potsdam-At at Yalta it was agreed Russia would help out against Japan once Germany was defeated however by Potsdam the development of the A-bomb to be dropped on Japan meant Stalin felt betrayed- USA now had military supremacy.

No Russian help so kept out of admin of Japan. - Change of leadership & personalities from Churchill and Roosevelt to Truman and Atlee- T was much more anti-comm- took harder line and A lacked positive working relationship like C. -TD- March 1947- Stated USA would help any country/govt.

under attack by armed communist minorities.

Seen by Stalin as evidence of American Imperialism- obvious attempt to destroy communism.

Immediate response to the Greek Crisis where there was an attempted communist takeover during the Greek Civil War.

400B given to Greek anti-communists-MP- June 1947- plan to provide financial help to war-torn Europe.

Reasons: Shocked at Conditions in post-war Europe.

Economic- increases trade; stimulate US growth to avoid another depression. All countries eligible- condition of free trade meant impossible for EE govts to take aid without detaching from USSR.

$17B provided- Churchill.

Stalin called in ‘Dollar imperialism’- Economic aid dependent on political compliance- an attempt to encourage European countries into the US sphere of influence through opening up their economies to trade with the USA. -Truman’s behaviour at Potsdam- his open hostility towards Stalin, contributed significantly to the breakdown in relations, compared to Yalta. -The US decision not to inform Stalin about the A bomb project caused immense tension at Potsdam, given that the two countries were wartime allies. -Kennan’s Long Telegram Feb 1946- US diplomat to USSR since ’33.

Warned that the soviets foreign policy was for ‘World Domination’- USA needed a policy of containment to stop spread of comm. -Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech March 1946- Fulton.

Missouri- Truman’s hometown.

Call of action by Churchill against comm.

divisions had led to an ‘Iron Curtain’.

This convinced to Truman to adopt a hard line “Iron Fist” policy of a tougher approach.

Atlee backed the Speech.

Stalin accused Churchill of Warmongering. -Germany- March 1948- 3 Zones merged to create Trizonia.

Stopped paying reparations to Russia. Western zones befitted from Marshall Aid 18th June 1948- new currency ‘Deutsche Mark’- aimed to provide economic stability and help recovery seen as a provocative-felt future peace meant development of democratic Germany- treated harshly at TofV. Stalin forced to blockade WB- West responded by Airlift of food and supplies to over 2 million Berliners – Expensive but well organised- constant shortages but the city survived. By May 1949- 2.3 million tonnes of supplies flown in. August 1948- 60 B29 bombers deployed in Britain- carried nuclear weapons- increased pressure on Soviets. April 1949- NATO Formed- Guaranteed security of WE - Korea -End of WW2 Korea divided in 2 Zones along 38th Parallel.

SK govt.

of Rhee seemed vulnerableunpopular and relied on US troops.

NK leader Kim Il-Sung wanted to unify Korea & liberate south. Kim orders invasion in June 1950 supported by Soviet aircraft and tanks. Truman was already under pressure from China Lobby for ‘loss’ of China when in October 1949 China became communist -NSC-86 1950: Secret document of Truman’s new policy- encouraged roll back strategy- liberating territory from communist control.

UN troops under G.MacArthur (dominated by the USA) moved from a “containment” policy in South Korea to an aggressive “roll back” policy once they crossed the 38 th parallel into North Korea towards Chinese Border- who feared invasion so in November entered war and pushed UN back to 38th Parallel.

Stalemate until 1953 armistice. Soviet aggression Dominate.... »


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