Aide en Philo

Sujet d'oral: Assess the role of totalitarianism in the collapse of global peace in the late 1930s

Publié le 05/05/2024

Extrait du document

« Assess the role of totalitarianism in the collapse of global peace in the late 1930s I want us to delve into a pivotal moment in history: the collapse of global peace in the late 1930s.

At the heart of this turbulent period lay the rise of totalitarianism, which played a significant role in shattering the fragile peace that had followed the First World War.

Totalitarianism-a form of government in which the state has no limits in authority and does whatever it wants-was articulated after WWII.

They ignored and obliterated individuals’ rights and aspirations to impose a strong and total rule on the society instead, through coercion and repression.

They pursued special goals and replaced all political institutions by new ones.

From Nazi Germany to Stalinist USSR, it left a terror sentiment.

In her thought-provoking work, The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt stated in 1951 that one key distinction is the sheer scale of cruelty and mass murder totalitarianism inflicts upon the population.

Each totalitarian regime was born in a democratic framework which was abruptly overthrown; all ended in failure, but all paved the way to WWII.

Let's assess its impact through three key lenses: Firstly, totalitarian regimes pursued aggressive expansionist policies, threatening the stability of the international order.

Take Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler.

In 1938, Hitler demanded the annexation of Austria, a move known as the Anschluss.

This blatant act of aggression violated established borders and set a dangerous precedent. Similarly, Mussolini's Italy sought territorial conquest, as evidenced by the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935.

These actions directly challenged the sovereignty of other nations and heightened tensions across Europe.

The aggressive actions of totalitarian regimes heightened regional tensions and increased the likelihood of conflict. Secondly, totalitarian regimes showed a flagrant disregard for international norms and institutions.

Consider the Treaty of Versailles, aimed at preventing future conflicts.

Hitler openly flouted its disarmament provisions by rearming the Rhineland in 1936.

This disregard for treaty obligations undermined trust and cooperation among nations.

Moreover, the League of Nations, designed to maintain peace, failed to effectively counter the aggression of totalitarian states due to its lack of enforcement mechanisms and the absence of key powers like the United States.

It highlighted the limitations of international law and diplomacy in preventing the escalation of conflicts and maintaining global peace. Lastly, totalitarian regimes thrived on fostering instability and conflict, both domestically and internationally.

Look at the Spanish Civil War, a proxy conflict fuelled by competing ideologies.

Totalitarian interventionists, including Hitler and Mussolini, supported Franco's Nationalist forces, exacerbating tensions, and prolonging.... »


Liens utiles