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H1/H3 Civilisation US/ Correction EDUCATION IN THE USA

Publié le 11/11/2023

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« H1/H3 Civilisation US/ Correction EDUCATION IN THE USA Educat° is free & compulsory until an age varying from 16 to 18.

It is supposed to give equal opportunities to all. It is fundamental as together with hard work, it is the necessary condition of upward mobility.

Americans believe in it as a means towards self- achievement. However, the Constitution makes no mention of free and compulsory education and each state is therefore free to organise education as it wishes. History: 1.

What was the situat° until 1954 for black & white children? Segregat°: black & white attended ≠ schools 2.

What was the name of the decision which put an end to this situation? May 17th 1954: Brown vs Board of Educat° of Topeka → SC ruled that segregation in school was unconstitutional Linda Brown, a young African American girl, had been denied admission to her local elementary school in Topeka, Kansas, because of the colour of her skin whereas the “coloured” school was much further away. 3.

What are "affirmative action laws” and when did they start? Started in the 1960s – set of measures to curtail discrimination: - active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups & women - policies, programs, and procedures that give preferences to minorities and women in job hiring, admission to institutions of higher education, the awarding of government contracts, and other social benefits. - typical criteria for affirmative action are race, disability, gender, ethnic origin, and age. History: Affirmative action laws were initiated by the administration of President Lyndon B.

Johnson (1963–69) in order to improve opportunities for African Americans while civil rights legislation was dismantling the legal basis for discrimination. 4.

Today, who is the US Education Secretary? Betsy DeVos – Republican - supports school choice, school voucher programs & charter schools Secondary education 5.

Who goes to junior high school or middle school? 6th to 8th grade (children between 11 and 13) 6.

Who goes to high school? - 9th to 12th grade so teens from 14 to 18 years old. 7.

What are the SATs, the GPA and the APs? - The SAT (/ˌɛsˌeɪˈtiː/ ess-ay-TEE) is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the US. - GPA = grade point average.

It is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the U.S.

Each course is given a certain number of "units" or "credits", depending on the content of the course.

GPA assumes a grading scale of A, B, C, D, F - each grade corresponds to a number of grade points: A=4 pts, B=3, C=2, D=1 and F=0 - AP tests (Advanced Placement tests) are college-level exams on specific subjects and are administered in May upon the completion of an AP course taken at a student's high school.

At many colleges and universities, a high enough score will earn the student college credit.

In some instances, earning college credit can mean an overall lower college tuition bill. H1/H3 Civilisation US/ Correction 8.

What is a Prep school? Prep schools are private independent secondary schools students attend to be able to enter highly selective colleges and universities.

The term "prep school" in the U.S.

is usually associated with private, elite institutions that have very selective admission criteria and high tuition fees. 9.

What does NCLB stand for? Briefly explain what it is. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was a U.S.

Act of Congress (Elementary & Secondary Educat°). It supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that setting high standards & establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education.

The Act required states to develop assessments in basic skills.

To receive federal school funding, states had to give these assessments to all students at select grade levels. The act did not assert a national achievement standard—each state developed its own standards.

NCLB expanded the federal role in public education through further emphasis on annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards, and teacher qualifications, as well as significant changes in funding. The bill passed in the Congress with bipartisan support.

By 2015, criticism from right, left, and centre had accumulated so much that a bipartisan Congress stripped away the national features of No Child Left Behind.

Its replacement, the Every Student Succeeds Act, turned the remnants over to the states. 10.

What is the Common Core, when or why was it created? The Common Core State Standards Initiative is an educational initiative in the US that details what K–12 students (from Kindergarten to 12th grade) should know in English language, arts and mathematics at the end of each grade. It is the set of learning goals used by several states, in an effort to make education more consistent nationwide and to bring more depth to classroom learning.

The idea is to establish national standards to ensure equal chances to all students regardless of their State as opposed to very different States’ curricula. → 42 States + the District of Columbia adopted the Common Core Standards → Trump wants to repeal the Common Core: he wants education to be dealt with locally. 11.

What is a charter school? K-12 institutions, funded with tax-payer money, but managed privately 12.

What is the Pledge of Allegiance? Give details The Pledge of Allegiance was first recited in 1892, the year it was first written.

The author was Francis Bellamy, a Baptist minister from New York.

Public schools all around the country were preparing a celebration in honour of the 400th anniversary of Columbus Day. Its current wording is: "I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all." During the Pledge, proper etiquette requires military personnel in uniform to salute, while other citizens place their right hand on their heart.

Men should remove their hats during the pledge. All states except California, Hawaii, Iowa, Vermont, and Wyoming require a regularly scheduled recitation of the pledge in public schools.

California requires a "patriotic exercise" every day, which would be satisfied by the Pledge, but it is not universally enforced. The Supreme Court has ruled in West Virginia State Board of Education v.

Barnette that students cannot be compelled to recite the Pledge, nor can they be punished for not doing so. H1/H3 Civilisation US/ Correction Higher education 13.

What comes to your mind when you're asked about the Ivy League? - 8 of the oldest and most prestigious universities: academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, social elitism - all north-eastern Universities – private universities - Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University - Ivy: reference to the ivy growing on those old buildings 14.

What is a community college? Most degrees at a community college only take two years to complete, while degrees at a four-year university take four years to complete. Instead of doing the first two years at a university, some students will elect to do those two years of general education requirements at a community college first and then transfer to a traditional university to complete the last two years of their degree. Students who begin their studies at a community college are ready to enter university at the junior level, meaning they only need an additional two-years before earning a bachelor’s degree. Most community colleges do not offer a bachelor’s degree.

Instead, community colleges award certificates and associate degrees.

An associate’s degree is designed to be finished in two years (after about 60 credits) and is made up of core classes like English, history, math, government, arts, and science. 15.

What is a Bachelor's degree, a Master's degree, a PhD? - A bachelor’s degree is a four-year degree.

A bachelor’s is a post-secondary undergraduate degree. - A master's degree is a type of graduate degree earned after completion of an undergraduate degree like a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science.

Typically, the master's degree takes 2 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor's degree to complete. - A PhD is a postgraduate doctoral degree, awarded to students who complete an original thesis offering a significant new contribution to knowledge in their subject.

PhD qualifications are available in all subjects and are normally the highest level of academic degree a person can achieve.

PhD: abbreviation for 'Doctor of Philosophy'. 16.

Apart from academic achievement, what is at the core of the college / university experience? - Life on campus: for many students in the US, it is their first time living away from home. Dorm living is a learning experience. Variety of different clubs, events, and other activities such as sports, student government, media, tutoring Also Greek life: joining a fraternity or sorority is a great way to make friends and connections, and to get involved on campus.

Many fraternities and sororities sponsor various philanthropic, volunteer and fundraising events. H1/H3 Civilisation US/ Correction 17.

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