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13477 dissertations trouvées

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Suárez's Conception of Metaphysics

||The core of Suárez’s philosophical, theological and legal thought is his metaphysics. The rest of this essay will therefore be devoted to the exploration of two key elements of Suárez’s metaphysical thought, which illustrate both the transitional role it played between medieval scholasticism and modern philosophy and the innovation within traditional parameters that...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Bentham and James Mill

||Jeremy Bentham was born in 1748 in London; his prosperous father, a lawyer who became wealthy from property rather than the law, planned out for his son a brilliant legal career. After an early education at Westminster and Oxford he was called to the Bar in 1769. However, instead of mastering the complexities,...

17 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: J.S.Mill

|| John Stuart Mill’s mature views on ethics and politics are to be found in On Liberty (published in 1859), Utilitarianism (1861), Considerations on Representative Government (1861) and The Subjection of Women (written in 1861–2 but published in 1869). Of these, Liberty is the centrepiece, detailing the doctrines and themes which...

25 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Sidgwick

|| Unlike John Stuart Mill or Jeremy Bentham, Henry Sidgwick’s is hardly a household name in intellectual circles beyond the world of professional philosophy. His standing amongst many contemporary moral philosophers as possibly the greatest nineteenth­century writer on ethics would come as a shock to such householders, as would C.D. Broad’s estimate of his...

17 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE LAW OF THREE STAGES - COMTE

||It is best to begin with the problem that troubled Comte: the disharmony he believed to exist between the backward state of the European social systems with which he was familiar and the advanced state of the scientific knowledge to which he had been exposed in the École Polytechnique. During this period its staff...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE CHARACTER AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SCIENCES - COMTE

||Very little of Comte’s Law of Three Stages has escaped criticism. In part, Comte encouraged this by his claims concerning its philosophical importance and the major role that he took it to play in his system. True, he emphasized that the different sciences moved through the three stages at different rates and at different...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: HYPOTHESES AND SOCIAL LAWS - COMTE

||Despite his difficulties with the notions of observation, cause, verification and law of nature, Comte was one of the earliest social thinkers to stress the indispensability in social scientific work of the appropriate use of theories and hypotheses. In his essay ‘Philosophical Considerations on the Sciences and Savants’ (1825), he wrote:  Unless man connects...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THUS SPOKE ZARATHUSTRA - Nietzsche

||Nietzsche regarded Thus Spoke Zarathustra as his most important achievement. The work’s subtitle, ‘A Book for Everyone and No one’, conveys its mixture of accessibility and inaccessibility. In style, it is most obviously modelled on the Bible; and Nietzsche may have gained a hint of the possibilities of Biblical pastiche from Mark Twain’s satirical...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ETERNAL RECURRENCE - Nietzsche

||On his own account, the idea of the eternal return came to Nietzsche quite suddenly, during his summer residence in Switzerland in August 1881. Yet his notebooks of the time reveal a wide reading in popular science and philosophy of nature, including discussions of the idea of recurrence. From the beginning, the idea is...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: NIETZSCHE AS PSYCHOLOGIST

||Nietzsche often called himself a ‘psychologist’ rather than a ‘philosopher’. What he meant has little to do with any science of behaviour modelling itself on the physical sciences. In the first section of Human, All Too Human, he uses the metaphor of ‘sublimation’, taken from physical chemistry, to express the transformation of lower into...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: A REVALUATION OF VALUES - Nietzsche

||A constant theme in Nietzsche’s thought is a radical revaluation of moral conceptions. In Human, All Too Human, he introduces a crucial distinction between two kinds of morality. One, the earliest source of these concepts, is the creation of ruling groups and individuals. ‘Good and bad is for a long time the same thing...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Agnosticism ?

||Although the philosophical position described as ‘agnosticism’ - scepticism with respect to the existence or nonexistence of a supernatural divine being - has a long history, the term itself was introduced by Thomas H. Huxley in 1869 in order to provide an ‘ism’ that described his own intellectual outlook on matters of religion.Huxley held that...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Agricola, Rudolph

||Agricola discusses three methods of study: reading, the compilation of commonplace books, and the sharing and development of knowledge through composition. In a sense, rather in the manner of Augustine’s De doctrina christiana (On Christian Doctrine), a literary approach, and a choice of classical and Christian authors, have taken Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Version 1.0,...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Agrippa von Nettesheim, Henricus Cornelius

|| Born to a family of the lesser nobility in Cologne (from whose Latin name, Colonia Agrippina, he drew his humanist cognomen), Agrippa took his first degree at Cologne in 1502; after further studies in Paris and elsewhere, he claimed to have doctorates in canon law, civil law and medicine - and also to have been knighted in...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Ailly, Pierre d'

|| D’Ailly’s Tractatus super De consolatione philosophiae Boethii (Treatise on Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy) is mainly devoted to the theory of human happiness. Whether a human being can be called ‘truly happy in this life’ was one of the central ethical questions in the Buridanist school, where the term homo felicitabilis (the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Ajdukiewicz, Kazimierz

|| Radical conventionalism is closely related to Ajdukiewicz’s theory of language and meaning. The meanings of expressions in a language generate rules for accepting sentences of L. Ajdukiewicz singles out three kinds of meaning-rules: axiomatic (they require the unconditional acceptance of certain sentences, for example ‘A is A’), deductive (for example, B follows from ‘if A then B’ and...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Akrasia

Moral weakness is that particular form of akrasia which consists in failing to live up to one's sincerely expressed beliefs about what it would be morally best to do. Nothing is more obvious, one might think, than that people often do things they genuinely consider to be morally wrong; but the existence of this type...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din

Likewise the ancient Persians, a very noble people, began with the rise of Mazdaism the same downward journey as the Greeks, which resulted in their moral erosion and subjection by the Arabs. Similarly, the Muslim empire, which rose on the same solid moral and religious foundation as did both the Greeks and Persians, became so...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: al-Baghdadi, Abu 'l-Barakat

The Kitab al-mu'tabar contains many other, no less innovative ideas that have no modern counterpart; for example, the claim that each type of body has a characteristic velocity that reaches its maximum when its motion encounters no resistance. Although al-Mu'tabar is not a systematic work, comprising instead notes on various subjects that al-Baghdadi...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Albert of Saxony

Albert accepts Ockham's conception of the nature of a sign. He believes that signification rests on a referential relation of the sign to the individual thing, and that the spoken sign depends for its signification on the conceptual sign. He follows Ockham again in his conception of universals and, for the most part, in his theory...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Albert the Great

In the field of psychology, Albert worked primarily on the exposition of the fundamental concepts of Aristotle's theory of the soul, especially of the theory of the intellect. Albert tried to correct and contribute to the exposition of Aristotle in two areas. He fought against the doctrine of the unity of the intellect (or 'monopsychism'...

8 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Albo, Joseph

Albo comes late in the history of Jewish dogmatics. His contribution lies in the architectonic he constructs for Jewish faith and practice. Maimonides and others present the principles of Judaism on an equal footing. Albo offers a hierarchically graded, logically structured schematization. The structure is designed both for internal strength and for defence against external...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Alchemy

Discussing matter and its transformations, alchemists encountered philosophical themes from the beginning. There have even been attempts to trace back alchemy to Aristotle's idea of change in material substances, but actually alchemy (practice plus theory) was not yet born. In later Antiquity an especial relationship existed between alchemy and Hermetic thought: the unity of...

4 pages - 1,80 €

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