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13477 dissertations trouvées

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: John Henry Newman

||If the nineteenth century set the stage for the fiercest ever battle between science and religion, it was also spanned by the lifetime of a thinker who made a greater effort than any other to show that not just belief in God, but the acceptance of a religious creed, was a completely rational activity:...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Sigmund Freud

||Freud was born into an Austrian Jewish family in 1856 and spent almost all of his life in Vienna. He trained as a doctor and went into medical practice in 1886. In 1895 he published a work on hysteria which presented a novel analysis of mental illness. Shortly afterwards he gave up normal medicine and...

5 pages - 1,80 €

FREGE'S PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC

||t will be seen that Frege's philosophy of mathematics is closely linked to his understanding of several key terms of logic and of philosophy; and indeed in the Begriffschrift and the Grundlagen Frege not only founded modern logic, but also founded the modern philosophical discipline of philosophy of logic. He did so by making...

1 page - 1,80 €

TRACTATUS LOGICO-PHILOSOPHICUS - Ludwig Wittgenstein

||Ludwig Wittgenstein was the grandson of a Jewish land-agent and the son of a steel millionaire who had nine children by a Catholic wife, and baptized all of them into the Catholic faith. Born in Vienna in 1889, he attended the Realschule in Linz, where he was a contemporary of Adolf Hitler. At school...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Peut on considérer que tout n'est qu'illusion ?

||Dans la vie courante, l'illusion est toujours décriée : on reproche à autrui de se faire des illusions, ou de se raccrocher à des illusions. Les philosophes eux même sont en proie à ce grand questionnement : est si tout n'était qu'illusions ? Même s'il est vrai que toute personnes se pose au moins...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Absolute

Est absolu ce qui est sans restriction, donc sans limite, sans condition, sans lien. Rien ne borne un pouvoir absolu, ne fléchit une autorité absolue. Rien n'écarte une nécessité absolue. Rien ne supprime une contingence absolue. Rien ne précède un commencement absolu. Rien n'anticipe sur un point de départ absolu. Rien ne gouverne un principe absolu. Rien ne...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Absolutism

|| The term 'absolutism' describes a form of government in which the authority of the ruler is subject to no theoretical or legal constraints. In the language of Roman law - which played a central role in all theories of absolutism - the ruler was legibus solutus, or 'unfettered legislator'. Absolutism is generally, although not...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Abstract objects

|| The central philosophical question about abstract objects is: Are there any? An affirmative answer - given by Platonists or Realists - draws support from the fact that while much of our talk and thought concerns concrete (roughly, spatiotemporally extended) objects, significant parts of it appear to be about objects which lie outside space and time,...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Academy

|| The Academy was a public gymnasium in northwest Athens. Plato taught there, and the Academy remained the centre of Platonic philosophizing until the first century BC. Hence the term 'Academy' came to be used to designate Plato's school; members of the school were called 'Academics'. (And hence, ultimately, the modern use of the words to...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Action

|| Philosophical study of human action owes its importance to concerns of two sorts. There are concerns addressed in metaphysics and philosophy of mind about the status of reasoning beings who make their impact in the natural causal world, and concerns addressed in ethics and legal philosophy about human freedom and responsibility. 'Action theory' springs from...

6 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Adorno, Theodor Wiesengrund

|| Philosopher, musicologist and social theorist, Theodor Adorno was the philosophical architect of the first generation of Critical Theory emanating from the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, Germany. Departing from the perspective of more orthodox Marxists, Adorno believed the twin dilemmas of modernity - injustice and nihilism - derived from the abstractive character of ...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Adverbs

|| Adverbs are so named from their role in modifying verbs and other non-nominal expressions. For example, in ‘John ran slowly’, the adverb ‘slowly’ modifies ‘ran’ by characterizing the manner of John’s running. The debate on the semantic contribution of adverbs centres on two approaches. On the first approach, adverbs are understood as predicate operators: for...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aenesidemus (1st century BC)

|| Aenesidemus was a Greek philosopher of the first century BC who revived Pyrrhonian Scepticism, formulating the basic Ten Modes of Scepticism, or tropoi, and demonstrating that concepts such as cause, explanation, goodness and the goal of life engendered endemic and undecidable dispute; faced with this the Sceptic suspends judgment - and tranquillity follows. ...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aesthetic attitude

|| It is undeniable that there are aesthetic and non-aesthetic attitudes. But is there such a thing as the aesthetic attitude? What is meant by the aesthetic attitude is the particular way in which we regard something when and only when we take an aesthetic interest in it. This assumes that on all occasions of...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aesthetic attitude

|| Aesthetic concepts are the concepts associated with the terms that pick out aesthetic properties referred to in descriptions and evaluations of experiences involving artistic and aesthetic objects and events. The questions (epistemological, psychological, logical and metaphysical) that have been raised about these properties are analogous to those raised about the concepts. In the eighteenth century,...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AL-KINDÏ

||Arabic philosophers drew extensively, then, on Aristotle’s work and thought. Yet they were not Aristotelians in the strict sense of the word. This is already clear in the work of the first of them, Abti Ytisuf Ya‘qtib ibn Ish.aq al-Kindï (born end of second century/beginning of eight century; died after 256/870) ([2.19], [2.11]). Al-Kindï...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AL-R-Z/ AND AL-F-R-B/

||The most idiosyncratic figure in the history of Arabic philosophy is, without question, that of Ab* Bakr Muh.ammad ibn Zakariyy& al-R&z( (251/865–313/925), who was also an outstanding writer on medicine. The most important of his many medical works, al-H&w( (known in Latin as Continens) has a significant place in the history of medicine, in...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AVICENNA

||The traditional (perhaps not completely exact) date for the birth, near Bukhara (in present day Uzbekistan) of Ab* ‘Al( al-H. usayn ibn ‘Abdallah ibn S(n& is 370/980. Ibn S(n&, known as ‘Avicenna’ in the West through the twelfth-century Latin translations, is a giant in the history of thought. A polymath, he was in particular...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Averroes

||Ab*’l Wal(d Muh. ammad ibn Ah.mad ibn Rushd (1126–98) needs to be known only as Averroes to be familiar to students of philosophy in the West. Greatly respected as a commentator on Aristotle’s writings, Averroes was also strongly attacked for what were perceived to be his theologico-political and metaphysical views. He was accused of...

8 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Maimonides

||Moses ben Maimon was born in 1138 at Cordoba, where his father was a rabbinical judge. In 1148 Maimon and his family fled from the religious persecution which took place after the town fell to the Almohades. After wandering from town to town in Spain, and perhaps also in Provence, in 1160 they arrived...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ERIUGENA

||In some respects, Western medieval philosophy can be viewed as beginning with the brilliant and controversial ninth-century thinker John Scottus Eriugena. Marenbon values him for his ability to reason abstractly yet criticizes his tendency to system building. However, it is Eriugena’s notion of structure which perhaps makes him closer to modern writers than...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Anselm of Canterbury

||The next major figure in the Western intellectual tradition and the dominant thinker of the late eleventh century is Anselm of Canterbury.74 Marenbon arrives at an ambivalent judgement in his case, on one hand denying him the title of ‘philosopher’ because his argumentation does not arrive finally at its conclusions but assumes them from...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Bonaventure

||John of Fidanza, known as Bonaventure, was born c. 1217. He studied arts in Paris from 1234 or 1235 until 1243. He then joined the Franciscans and studied theology, also in Paris, where he was taught by Alexander of Hales, the first of the Franciscan masters of theology. Bonaventure himself held the Franciscan chair...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Thomas Aquinas

||Thomas Aquinas, son of Landulf d’Aquino and his wife Theodora, was born sometime between 1224 and 1226 in what was then the Kingdom of Naples.1 After a childhood education at the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino, he studied at the university of Naples. Here, possibly under Irish influence, he encountered the philosophy of Aristotle,...

17 pages - 1,80 €

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