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13477 dissertations trouvées

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Bruno and Galileo

||The great intellectual advance of the sixteenth century was not in philosophy itself, but in the separation that was achieved between the philosophy of nature and the science of physics. Both disciplines endeavour to understand the same subject matter; but scientific physics proceeds by observation and hypothesis, not by a priori speculation or conceptual...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Francis Bacon

||The most distinguished philosopher of science during the Renaissance period was not himself a researcher. The essayist Francis Bacon (1561–1626) was almost the same age as Galileo; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and Gray's Inn, he followed a career at the Bar and in the House of Commons. In 1591 he became a client...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Wars of Religion

||In the first half of the seventeenth century Europe worked out, by political and military means, the consequences of the religious reformation. It was the age of the wars of religion. In France, three decades of civil war between Catholic and Calvinist came to an end in 1598 when the Calvinist leader, Henri de...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE LIFE OF DESCARTES

||Among those who fought on the Catholic side in the Thirty Years War was the most important philosopher of the seventeenth century, René Descartes. Descartes was born in 1596, in a village which is now called La-Haye-Descartes. He was educated by the Jesuits and remained a Catholic throughout his life; but he chose to...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Doubt and the Cogito - DESCARTES

||Descartes insisted that the first task in philosophy is to rid oneself of all prejudice by calling in doubt all that can be doubted. The second task of the philosopher, having raised these doubts, is to prevent them leading to scepticism. This strategy comes out clearly in Descartes' Meditations. As the title suggests, the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE ESSENCE OF MIND

||In the rest of the Meditations Descartes proceeds to answer the question ‘What am I, this I whom I know to exist?' The immediate answer is that I am a thing which thinks (res cogitans). ‘What is a thing which thinks? It is a thing which doubts, understands, conceives, affirms, denies, wills, refuses, which...

2 pages - 1,80 €

HOBBES' POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

||Hobbes' determinism allows him to extend the search for causal laws beyond natural philosophy (which seeks for the causes of the phenomena of natural bodies) into civil philosophy (which seeks for the causes of the phenomena of political bodies). It is this which is the subject matter of Leviathan, which is not only a...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Blaise Pascal

||Two years after the publication of Descartes' Meditations, King Louis XIV succeeded to the throne of France. For the first eighteen years of his reign he was a minor, and the government was in the hands of his mother, Anne of Austria, and her chief minister Cardinal Mazarin. At the latter's death in 1661...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Spinoza and Malebranche

||The most important of Descartes' continental successors was in fact concerned with the relationship between Cartesian philosophy and the God of the Hebrews. Baruch Spinoza was born into a Spanish-speaking Jewish family living in Amsterdam. He was educated as an orthodox Jew, but he early rejected a number of Jewish doctrines, and in 1656,...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Leibniz

||Both Malebranche and Spinoza were important influences on the thinking of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Leibniz was born in 1646, the son of a professor of philosophy at Leipzig university. He started to read metaphysics in early youth, and by the age of thirteen became familiar with the writings of the scholastics, to which he...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Berkeley

||In 1715 King Louis XIV of France died. A year earlier Queen Anne, the last of the Stuart monarchs of England, had died, and on her death, the English crown was given to the dynasty of Hanover, in order to preserve the Protestant succession. The Hanoverian King Georges were able to maintain their throne...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: HUME'S PHILOSOPHY OF MIND

||Hume was born in Edinburgh in 1711. He was a precocious philosopher, and his major work, A Treatise of Human Nature, was written in his twenties. In his own words it ‘fell dead-born from the press'; unsurprisingly, perhaps, in view of its mannered, meandering, and repetitious style. He rewrote much of its content in...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Philosophes

||In the eighteenth century, social and political philosophy in France, as in Britain, was influenced by Locke. But whereas in England, under a constitutional monarchy, government was parliamentary if not democratic, and there was religious toleration for all except Catholics, in France the monarchy was absolute, and once Louis XIV revoked the Edict of...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ROUSSEAU

||Of all French philosophers of the eighteenth century the most influential was Jean Jacques Rousseau, though his influence was greater outside philosophical circles than among professional philosophers. Like St Augustine, he wrote a book of autobiographical Confessions; his confessions are more vivid and more detailed than the Saint's, and contain more sins, less ...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE TRANSCENDENTAL DIALECTIC: THE ANTINOMIES OF PURE REASON - KANT

||We turn next to a priori cosmology. Here Kant presents us with a set of antinomies. An antinomy is a pair of contrasting arguments which lead to contradictory conclusions (a thesis and an antithesis). Kant constructed a set of these to show that any attempt by reason to form ‘cosmical concepts', that is to...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Kant's Moral Philosophy

||Just as the first Critique set out critically the synthetic a priori principles of theoretical reason, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785) set out critically the synthetic a priori principles of practical reason. This is a brief and eloquent presentation of Kant's moral system.  In morals, Kant's starting point is that the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Fichte

||Napoleon's conquest of most of Europe can be compared with Alexander's conquests of much of Asia and parts of Africa. The spectacular military achievements were short-lived, but their cultural consequences were felt long after. After Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo, tired monarchies were restored throughout the continent; but their tenure was precarious, and...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Hegel

||One of those most indebted to, but also most critical of, Fichte was G. W. F. Hegel, by far the most influential of the German Idealists. Born in 1770, Hegel studied theology at the University of Tübingen, and taught at Jena until the University was closed down by the French invasion. In 1807 he...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Jeremy Bentham

||Britain survived the Napoleonic era without invasion and without revolution. Government remained in the hands of a privileged group, and in times of national crisis under Prime Ministers such as the younger Pitt and Lord Liverpool, who were highly autocratic; there was a long way yet to go before the country became a modern...

4 pages - 1,80 €

The Utilitarianism of J. S. Mill

||Mill softened down Bentham's utilitarianism in several ways. Critics had objected that to suppose that life has no higher end than pleasure was a doctrine worthy only of swine. Mill responded by making a distinction between the quality of pleasures. ‘Of two pleasures, if there be one to which all or almost all who...

1 page - 1,80 €

MiLL's LoGic

||Apart from On Liberty Mill's best known work is his essay on The Subjection of Women, written in collaboration with his wife Harriet Taylor. But Mill's reputation as a philosopher does not depend on his moral and political writings alone. He was highly learned and very industrious; he began learning Greek at the age...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Schopenhauer

Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788-1860) Philosophe allemand. A la mort de son père, il suit sa mère, écrivain, à Weimar et fait la connaissance de Goethe, Wieland et des frères Schlegel. Après des études à Göttingen puis à Berlin, où il suit les séminaires de Fichte, il publie en 1819 son ouvrage principal, le Monde comme volonté et comme représentation.  A l'instar de...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: KIERKEGAARD

||In the same decade as the second edition of The World as Will and Idea appeared, the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard put forward a philosophy which in its practical aspect had much in common with Schopenhauer, but which rests on a totally different metaphysical foundation. Instead of being enunciated as a system in a...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: NIETZSCHE

||In the nineteenth century, all that Kierkegaard stood for was bombastically rejected by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900). While for Kierkegaard aesthetic enjoyment was the lowest form of individual existence and Christian self-denial the highest, Nietzsche regarded Christianity as the lowest debasement of the human ideal which finds its highest expression in...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Charles Darwin

||In his funeral oration on Karl Marx, Engels described the materialist conception of history as a scientific breakthrough comparable with Darwin’s discovery of evolution by natural selection. Unlike Marx’s theory, Darwin’s discovery was a genuine scientific advance, and the detailed discussion of it belongs to the history of science. But it casts a ...

4 pages - 1,80 €

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