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13477 dissertations trouvées

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ALKINDI AND AVICENNA ?

||Paradoxically, the Christian Eriugena was a much less important precursor of Western medieval philosophy than a series of Muslim thinkers in the countries that are now Iraq and Iran. Besides being significant philosophers in their own right, these Muslims provided the route through which much Greek learning was made available to the Latin West....

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: SAINT ANSELM

||In England too, under William the Conqueror’s successors relations between Church and State were often strained; and the quarrels between Pope and King played an important part in the life of the most important philosopher of the eleventh century, St Anselm of Canterbury. Anselm, who was born just before Avicenna’s death, resembled him as...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ABELARD AND HÉLoÏsE

||   Peter Abelard was just thirty years old when Anselm died. Born into a knightly family in Brittany in 1079, he was educated at Tours and went to Paris in about 1100 to join the school attached to the Cathedral of Notre Dame, run by William of Champeaux. Falling...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ABELARD'S LOGIC

||Abelard’s importance as a philosopher is due above all to his contribution to logic and the philosophy of language. Logic, when he began his teaching career, was studied in the West mainly from Aristotle’s Categories and On Interpretation, plus Porphyry’s introduction and some works of Cicero and Boethius. Aristotle’s major logical works were not...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ABELARD'S ETHICS

||Abelard was an innovator in ethics no less than in logic. He was the first medieval writer to give a treatise the title Ethics, and unlike his medieval successors he did not have Aristotle’s Ethics to take as a starting point. But here his innovations were less happy. Abelard objected to the common teaching...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AVERROES

||Abelard was far the most brilliant Christian thinker of the twelfth century. The other significant philosophers of the age were the Arab Averroes and the Jew Maimonides. Both of them were natives of Cordoba in Muslim Spain, then the foremost centre of artistic and literary culture in the whole of Europe.  Averroes’ real name...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: MAIMONIDES

||Rabbi Moses ben Maimon, better known to later writers by the name of Maimonides, was nine years younger than Averroes. He left his birthplace, Cordoba, when thirteen. Muslim Spain, which had provided a tolerant environ-ment for Jews hitherto, was overrun by the fanatical Almohads, and Maimonides’ family migrated to Fez and later to Palestine....

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Saint Bonaventure

||Bonaventure was the son of an Italian physician, and was said to have been healed of a childish illness by St Francis. He become a friar in 1243, and studied under Alexander of Hales, the first head of the Franciscan school in Paris and the author of a vast theological anthology which served as...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AQUINAS' LIFE AND WORKS

||Among the professors at Paris University in the thirteenth century was the philosopher who more than any other brought Christian philosophy to terms with Aristotle: St Thomas Aquinas.  Thomas was born about 1225 at Roccasecca near Aquino in Italy. He was schooled by the Benedictine monks of Monte Cassino and studied liberal arts at ...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AQUINAS' NATURAL THEOLOGY

||Aquinas' most famous contribution to the philosophy of religion is the Five Ways or proofs of the existence of God to which he refers early in his Summa Theologiae. Motion in the world, Aquinas argues, is only explicable if there is a first unmoved mover; the series of efficient causes in the world must...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Matter, Form, Substance, and Accident (Aquinas)

||In metaphysics Aquinas was a faithful follower of Aristotle – though not a slavish one, as the example of the eternal universe illustrates. He accepted the analysis of material bodies in terms of matter and form, and the thesis that change is to be explained as the reception of different successive forms in the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aquinas on Essence and Existence

||Difficulties with the notion of transubstantiation do not, of course, call in question the general concepts of substance and accident outside this particular, and perhaps perverse, theological application of them. But the Aristotelian analysis of change raises other problems which Aquinas considers. If accidental change is to be understood as one and the same...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: AQUINAS' PHILOSOPHY OF MIND

||In treating of the human mind Aquinas had an exacting task: he wanted to show that it was possible to accept Aristotle's psychology without following Averroes in denying the immortality of the individual human soul. Like Bonaventure, Aquinas refused to accept the Arab philosophers' theory that human beings shared a common universal intellect. The...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aquinas' Moral Philosophy

||Aquinas' ethical system is most copiously set out in the Second Part of his Summa Theologiae. This, which is nearly 900,000 words long, is subdivided into a first part (the Prima Secundae) which contains the General Part of ethics, and the second part (the Secunda Secundae) which contains detailed teaching on individual moral topics....

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: DuNS Scotus

||The most distinguished of these was John Duns Scotus. He was born about 1266 perhaps at Duns, near Berwick-on-Tweed. He studied at Oxford between 1288 and 1301, and was ordained priest in 1291. Merton College used to claim him as a fellow, but the claim is now generally regarded as baseless. While at Oxford...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: LANGUAGE- DuNS Scotus

||Scotus' tendency to restrict the field of operation of philosophy is carried further by his successor, William Ockham. William, like Scotus a Franciscan friar, came from the village of Ockham in Surrey; he was born about 1285 and studied at Oxford shortly after Scotus had left it. He lectured on the Sentences from 1317...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: OCKHAM'S POLITICAL THEORY

||Ockham's summons to Avignon did not lead to a condemnation for heresy, even though a commission spent several years examining his Commentary on the Sentences. However, his time there did give a wholly new turn to his career. The Pope of the time, John XXII, was in conflict with the Franciscan Order on two...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Oxford Calculators

||When Ockham died of the Black Death in Munich in 1349 it was a quarter of a century since he had left Oxford. During the period, the University had become the unquestioned intellectual centre of scholastic philosophy. It would be wrong to envisage it simply as a battleground for warring schools of thought, Thomists...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: John Wyclif

Né en Angleterre dans une famille instruite, John Wyclif effectue ses études dans l'université d'Oxford. Vers  1360, il devient maître du collège de Balliol au sein de cette prestigieuse université. Très vite, il s'oppose à  certaines décisions de l'Église de Rome. Ainsi, en 1374, il soutient les parlementaires dans leur contestation  des impôts dus au...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Renaissance

Vaste mouvement d'ouverture culturelle, la Renaissance est marquée par un abandon des valeurs féodales au profit des valeurs de l'humanisme : ouverture sur l'Europe et notamment sur l'Italie, réactualisation des valeurs antiques. L'épanouissement intellectuel, encouragé par François ler et par sa soeur Marguerite de Navarre, touche tous les domaines, aussi bien la médecine que l'astronomie, la poésie, etc....

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: RENAISSANCE PLATONISM

||Cardinal Bessarion, who had introduced the future Pope into this quarrel, was no enemy to Aristotle: he produced a new Latin translation of the Metaphysics. But he was himself involved in a different controversy about the relationship of Aristotle to Christian teaching. Greek scholars at the Papal court were now making the works of...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: MACHIAVELLI

||  Savonarola fell from favour and was burnt as a heretic in 1498, but the Florentine republic survived him. One of its officers and diplomats was Niccolò Machiavelli, who served in its chancellery from 1498 until 1512, when the Medici returned to power in the city. In the course of his career he became a...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: MORE'S UTOPIA

||Pomponazzi's book, swiftly condemned, did not have a great influence; but in the same year there appeared a much more popular work: Utopia. This was written by Thomas More, a London barrister in his thirties who had just entered the royal service under King Henry VIII. More was a keen humanist, anxious to promote...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Reformation

||The society in which More had grown up was about to be changed dramatically, and in his opinion, greatly for the worse. In 1517 a professor of theology at Wittenberg threw down a challenge to the Pope's pretensions that was to lead half Europe to reject Papal authority. Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk of...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: POST-REFORMATION PHILOSOPHY

||The Reformation disputes also affected the areas on which philosophers concentrated. We can illustrate this in three instances: formal logic, scepticism, and free-will.  Formal logic had progressed steadily in the Middle Ages, building on the foundations laid by Aristotle and the Stoics. This study continued in sixteenth¬century universities, but humanist scholars were impatient with...

2 pages - 1,80 €

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