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13477 dissertations trouvées

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE SOPHISTS

||Anaxagoras, during the rule of Pericles, was without rival as a resident philosopher in Athens. But during the same period the city received visits from a number of itinerant purveyors of learning who left behind reputations not inferior to his. These peripatetic teachers, or advisers, were called sophists: they were willing, for a fee,...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: SOCRATES

||Among those who served in the Athenian heavy infantry was Socrates the son of Sophroniscus, who was thirty-eight when the war began. He was present at three of the important battles in the earlier years of the war and won a reputation for bravery. Back in Athens in 406, he held office in the...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE EUTHYPHRO OF PLATO

||  After the trial portrayed in the Apology, there was a delay before sentence of death was carried out. A sacred ship had set out on its annual ceremonial voyage to the island of Delos, and until it returned to Athens the taking of human life was taboo. Plato has represented these days between condemnation and...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE CRito of Plato

||The Crito is a much easier dialogue to read. Socrates is now in prison, waiting for the execution of his sentence. A number of his friends, led by Crito, have devised a plan for him to escape and flee to Thessaly. The plan had a good chance of success, but Socrates would have no part...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE PHAEDo of Plato

||The dialogue with which Plato concludes his account of Socrates’ last days is called the Phaedo, after the name of the narrator, a citizen of Parmenides’ city of Elea, who claims, with his friends Simmias and Cebes, to have been present with Socrates at his death. The drama begins as news arrives that the...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE THEORY OF IDEAS of PLATO

||Plato’s theory arises as follows. Socrates, Simmias, and Cebes are all called ‘men’; they have it in common that they are all men. Now when we say ‘Simmias is a man’ does the word ‘man’ stand for something in the way that the word ‘Simmias’ stands for the individual man Simmias? If so, what?...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: PLATO'S REPUBLIC

||Plato relied on the Theory of Ideas not only in the area of logic and metaphysics, but also in the theory of knowledge and in the foundations of morality. To see the many different uses to which he put it in the years of his maturity, we cannot do better than to consider in...

7 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Theaetetus and the Sophist of Plato

||The Theaetetus begins in the manner of an early dialogue. The question set is ‘What is knowledge?’, and Socrates offers to act as midwife to enable the bright young mathematician Theaetetus to bring the answer to birth. The first suggestion is that knowledge consists of things like geometry and carpentry; but this will not...

5 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE THEORY OF DRAMA (the system of aristotle)

||In the realm of productive sciences, Aristotle wrote two works: the Rhetoric and the Poetics, designed to assist barristers and playwrights in their respective tasks. The Rhetoric has interested modern philosophers chiefly on account of the detailed and sensitive examination, in the second book, of the human emotions on which the orator has to...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Virtue and Happiness (the system of aristotle)

||Aristotle’s contribution to the practical sciences was made by his writings on moral philosophy and political theory. We possess his moral philosophy in three different versions, two of them his own notes for lecturing, and the third probably notes of his lectures made by a pupil. The dating of the two authentic treatises, the...

4 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: MORAL PHILOSOPHY: WISDOM AND UNDERSTANDING (the system of aristotle)

||Wisdom is a practical virtue which is concerned with what is good for human beings. Wisdom is expressed in practical reasoning: reasoning which starts from a general conception or pattern of human well-being, considers the circumstances of particular cases calling for decision, and concludes with a prescription for action. Aristotle envisages the ethical ...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: POLITICS (the system of aristotle)

||When we turn from the Ethics to their sequel, the Politics, we come down to earth with a bump. ‘Man is a political animal’ we are told: humans are creatures of flesh and blood, rubbing shoulders with each other in cities and communities. The most primitive communities are families of men and women, masters...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: METAPHYSICS (the system of aristotle)

||‘There is a discipline,’ Aristotle says in the fourth book of his Metaphysics, ‘which theorizes about Being qua being, and the things which belong to Being taken in itself.’ This discipline is called ‘first philosophy’, which he elsewhere describes as the knowledge of first principles and supreme causes. Other sciences, he says, deal with...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: EpicuREANisM ?

||Epicurus, born into a family of Athenian expatriates in Samos, set up house in Athens about 306 Bc, and lived there until his death in 271. His followers in the Garden, who included women and slaves, lived on simple fare and kept away from public life. Epicurus wrote three hundred books, but except for...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: STOICISM

||Epicureanism survived for six hundred years after Epicurus’ death; but despite finding incomparable expression in Lucretius’ great poem, it was never as popular as the Stoicism founded by his contemporary Zeno of Citium. Zeno came from Cyprus, where, having read a book about Socrates, he acquired a passion for philosophy which led him to...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: SCEPTICISM

||The English language preserves traces of both Epicureanism and Stoicism, but with different degrees of accuracy. An epicure would find little satisfaction in the bread and cheese diet of Epicurus; but a stoic attitude to suffering and death fairly reflects one aspect of Stoic philosophy. A third contemporary school, however, made its mark on...

1 page - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Jesus of Nazareth

||Augustus reigned as Emperor for forty-five years, until ad 14. It was in his reign that Jesus of Nazareth was born, and under the reign of his successor Tiberius that Jesus was crucified, probably about ad 30. This Jewish teacher, living in a remote province of the Empire far from the centres of Greek...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: CHRISTIANITY AND GNOSTICISM ?

||In the second and third centuries Christianity, now organized into a disciplined Church, spread across the Roman Empire. It took hold mainly in the cities, in communities presided over by bishops: the Christian word for non-Christians, ‘pagan’, was originally just the Latin word for a countryman. During this period  Christian attitudes to philosophy varied....

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: NEO-PLATONISM

||Contemporary with Origen, and a fellow pupil of Ammonius Saccas, was the last great pagan philosopher, Plotinus (205–70). Plotinus was an admirer of Plato, but gave his philosophy such a novel cast that he is known not as a Platonist, but as the founder of Neo-Platonism. After a brief military career he settled in...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ARIANISM AND ORTHODOXY ?

||When Justinian closed the schools at Athens, the Roman world had been officially Christian for some two hundred years. During the third century AD the Empire suffered a number of invasions and began to show signs of disintegration. Effect¬ive government was reimposed by Diocletian, who reigned from 284 to 305; as part of his...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE THEOLOGY OF INCARNATION

||The Council of Constantinople put an end to Arianism in the Eastern Empire; Theodosius backed its decrees with persecution. The heresy survived, however, among the barbarian Goths, who had recently mounted a successful invasion across the Danube and were shortly to conquer much of the West. In addition to its doctrinal decisions the Council...

2 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE LIFE OF AUGUSTINE

||While, in the East, a succession of Councils determined the doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation, in the West the Church had been ringing with debate about the relation between the purposes of God and the freedom of human beings. The decisive influence in these debates was a man who was to prove...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: THE CITY OF GOD AND THE MYSTERY OF GRACE OF AUGUSTINE ?

||Thirteen years after the writing of the Confessions, the city of Rome was sacked by invading Goths under Alaric. Pagans blamed this disaster on the Christians’ abolition of the worship of the city’s gods, who had therefore deserted it in its hour of need. In response, Augustine spent thirteen years writing a treatise The...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: BOETHIUS AND PHILOPONUS

||The sack of Rome by the Goths, which stimulated The City of God, was only the first of a series of barbarian attacks on the Western Empire and its metropolis. While Augustine was dying, the Vandals were at the gates of Hippo; before long they were masters of much of Africa and Spain. In...

3 pages - 1,80 €

Encyclopedia of Philosophy: John the Scot

||For two centuries after the death of Philoponus there is nothing for the historian of philosophy to record. During that period, however, two events altered beyond recognition the world which had fostered classical and patristic philosophy. The first was the spread of Islam; the second was the emergence of the Holy Roman Empire.  Within...

2 pages - 1,80 €

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